Main article: Welsh -og  meaning either “place of the yew trees” cf. The top half is medieval.
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Main article: Welsh -og  meaning either “place of the yew trees” cf. The top half is medieval. By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain , the area was occupied by a tribe known to the Romans as the Brigantes.
The Brigantian tribal area initially became a Roman client state, but later its leaders became more hostile and the Roman Ninth Legion was sent north of the Humber into Brigantian territory. The site of the principia HQ of the fortress lies under the foundations of York Minster , and excavations in the undercroft have revealed part of the Roman structure and columns. Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe. Initially they were successful, but upon the arrival of William the Conqueror the rebellion was put down.
William at once built a wooden fortress on a motte. In , after another rebellion, the king built another timbered castle across the River Ouse. These were destroyed in and rebuilt by William about the time of his ravaging Northumbria in what is called the ” Harrying of the North ” where he destroyed everything from York to Durham.
The remains of the rebuilt castles, now in stone, are visible on either side of the River Ouse. Around the year , Archbishop Thomas started building the cathedral that in time became the current Minster.
In , York Castle was the site of an infamous massacre of its Jewish inhabitants, in which at least Jews died although some authorities put the figure as high as The lower section was built in the 12th century, the top storeys in the 14th.
The gates connected to the York city walls , some sections of which were built in the 12th to 15th centuries, others in Roman times. The city, through its location on the River Ouse and its proximity to the Great North Road , became a major trading centre. King John granted the city’s first charter in ,  confirming trading rights in England and Europe.
Edward I further stimulated the city’s economy by using the city as a base for his war in Scotland. The city was the location of significant unrest during the so-called Peasants’ Revolt in The city acquired an increasing degree of autonomy from central government including the privileges granted by a charter of Richard II in This led to the Pilgrimage of Grace , an uprising of northern Catholics in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire opposed to religious reform.
The city became a trading and service centre during this period. In , during the Civil War , the Parliamentarians besieged York , and many medieval houses outside the city walls were lost. The barbican at Walmgate Bar was undermined and explosives laid, but, the plot was discovered. The siege was renewed; the city could not hold out for much longer, and surrendered to Sir Thomas Fairfax  on 15 July.
Low Petergate with the cathedral in the background Following the restoration of the monarchy in , and the removal of the garrison from York in , the city was dominated by the gentry and merchants, although the clergy were still important. Competition from Leeds and Hull , together with silting of the River Ouse, resulted in York losing its pre-eminent position as a trading centre but the city’s role as the social and cultural centre for wealthy northerners was on the rise.
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We provide local government services to around people in an area covering approximately square miles. City of York Council: West Offices, Station. Discover the historic city of York, and tour attractions like their iconic York Minster Cathedral and The Shambles. Find out more with VisitBritain. York Minster is one of the world’s most magnificent cathedrals. Since the 7th century, the Minster has been at the centre of Christianity in the north of England .
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